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Del Monte. If you're heading to the grocery store for food and other essentials, check out these grocery coupons for quick and easy savings. Get discounts on everything from personal care items to home cleaning supplies and organic grocery options with printable and digital grocery coupons. Dallas Denver Detroit Ft. Collins Ft. Specifically, results of adjusted models assessing the combined association of owning ATP or cigarette promotions with the combined outcome variable of ATP or cigarette initiation were not statistically significant OR, 1.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association of marketing receptivity, as defined by ownership of ATP promotional items, with subsequent initiation of ATP use including e-cigarettes; smokeless tobacco; tobacco pipes; cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars; and hookah among adolescents and young adults. In this study, among a sample of California adolescents and young adults, self-reported ownership of ATP promotional material and self-reported ownership of ATP- or cigarette-specific promotional material at baseline were longitudinally associated with ATP initiation 1 year later.
These findings are consistent with and extend the literature showing ownership of cigarette-related promotional material is associated with cigarette use among adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young adults in our study are reporting marketing receptivity not only to unregulated ATPs but also to cigarettes. Despite restrictions on the distribution of promotional materials for cigarettes, adolescents and young adults still report owning promotional items for cigarettes. Thus, we believe the significant findings of ATP marketing receptivity positively associated with ATP initiation found in this study have important public health and regulatory implications.
Increased ATP receptivity may not only increase the uptake of ATPs in adolescents, but it may simultaneously contribute to the renormalization of smoking.
These results suggest the importance of regulating the distribution of all types of tobacco promotional materials to adolescents and young adults. Our results should be interpreted in light of a few limitations. First, our study does not account for selection or attrition bias whereby adolescents and young adults who were differentially at higher risk for ATP initiation may have been more likely to participate in this study or be lost to follow-up.
In addition, although we measured and adjusted for all the confounders we identified based on the literature, the potential influence of unmeasured confounders is another limitation. This study was underpowered to test effect modification by age and other covariates. Future studies should aim to assess these potential interactions. Moreover, no causal relationships can be established between ownership of promotional material and ATP use, although previous research has made a strong case for causal effect of tobacco marketing and initiation of cigarette use among adolescents and young adults.
Moreover, all measures in this study were self-reported, and our study does not account for information bias including potential measurement error. Although we adjusted for baseline alcohol use in our analysis and yielded no significant results, future studies should further examine these relationships. Furthermore, our results may not be generalizable to adolescents and young adults throughout and outside of California.
However, rates of tobacco and ATP use in our study are consistent with national rates for youth. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that regulating the distribution of promotional materials for ATP products would likely result in a significant reduction in ATP use. This study fills gaps in the literature by simultaneously assessing a wide variety of ATPs used by adolescents and young adults and extending analyses of the association between marketing receptivity and tobacco initiation to include ownership of promotional materials.
Identifying factors associated with ATP use can help inform tobacco control campaigns and ATP regulations such as restrictions for materials distributed to adolescents. Current restrictions of cigarette samples, coupons, and other promotional material distributed to adolescents and young adults should extend to ATPs.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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Published online May Hoda S. Bradshaw , PhD, 2 Pamela M. Abdel Magid. Patrick T. Pamela M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Jan 18; Accepted Mar Copyright Abdel Magid HS et al. Key Points Question Is ownership of alternative tobacco product ATP marketing materials eg, samples, coupons, branded caps, t-shirts, or posters associated with subsequent initiation of ATPs or cigarettes among adolescents and young adults?
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Findings In this longitudinal cohort study of adolescents and young adults in California, ownership of ATP promotional materials was associated with ATP initiation. Abstract Importance Use of alternative tobacco products ATPs such as electronic cigarettes, chewing tobacco, pipes, cigars, cigarillos, little cigars, and hookah is rapidly increasing.
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Objective To estimate the association between marketing receptivity measured at baseline and ATP and any tobacco initiation 1 year later, including cigarettes, among adolescents and young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal cohort study of adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 19 years recruited at high schools in California from July to October , with follow-up 1 year later. Exposures Ownership of ATP-specific promotional material and ownership of any tobacco promotional materials eg, samples, coupons, branded caps, t-shirts, or posters assessed in wave 1.
Results Of participants mean [SD] age at wave 1, Introduction Although rates of cigarette and other combustible tobacco use have declined among adolescents and young adults in the United States, use of alternative tobacco products ATPs such as electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes or vapes , smokeless tobacco chewing tobacco, dissolvable or dipping tobacco, moist snuff, and snus , tobacco pipes, cigars traditional, filtered, and cigarillos or little cigars , and hookah water pipes has increased.
Methods Data and Study Design The data presented in this analysis are from a survey conducted in 2 waves, wave 1 July to October and wave 2 July to March , of a prospective longitudinal study of adolescents in ninth and twelfth grades. Measures All questions listed in this section were asked for the following products: e-cigarettes; cigarettes; smokeless tobacco chewing tobacco or moist snuff ; cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars; and hookah.
Results In wave 1 participants , adolescents had a mean SD age of Table 1. Covariate Participants, No. Open in a separate window. Table 2. Promotional Item Participants, No. Abbreviation: e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes. Table 3. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association of marketing receptivity, as defined by ownership of ATP promotional items, with subsequent initiation of ATP use including e-cigarettes; smokeless tobacco; tobacco pipes; cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars; and hookah among adolescents and young adults.
Limitations Our results should be interpreted in light of a few limitations.
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Conclusions Our results are consistent with the suggestion that regulating the distribution of promotional materials for ATP products would likely result in a significant reduction in ATP use. References 1. Tobacco product use among middle and high school students—United States, Notes from the field: use of electronic cigarettes and any tobacco product among middle and high school students—United States, Tobacco product use among adults—United States, J Adolesc Health.
The renormalization of smoking? N Engl J Med. Prev Med. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising. Tob Control.
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Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults. Tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product use among young adult bar patrons. Promotion of tobacco products on Facebook: policy versus practice.